CAID
Christian
                  Aboriginal
                                      Infrastructure
                                                        Developments

 

Featured

Meaningful Consultation in Canada: The Alternative to Forced Aboriginal Assimilation

United Nations’ Recommendations on the Duty to Consult

Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples Report on Canada’s North

Arctic Perishable Food Mail Program Review and Recommendations

Amnesty International - Canada: Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review

Indigenous Children's Health Report: Health Assessment in Action

 

Last Updated September 15, 2015

Foundation for a Sustainable Northern Future:

Report of the Joint Review Panel for the Mackenzie Gas Project (2009)

 

Volume 1

Full Document

 

Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................................iv

Preface............................................................................................................................................v

Defined Terms..................................................................................................................................xxx

Abbreviations and Acronyms.............................................................................................................xxxii

CHAPTER 1 — Project Context

1.1 THE LAND.......................................................................................................................... 3

1.2 THE PEOPLE....................................................................................................................... 4

1.3 THE EVOLVING NORTH.......................................................................................................... 6

1.4 ASPIRATIONS AND APPREHENSIONS........................................................................................ 7

1.5 THE FUTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT......................................................................... 11

 

CHAPTER 2 — Project Description

2.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 15

2.1.1 PROJECT OVERVIEW................................................................................................ 15

2.1.2 PROPONENTS......................................................................................................... 19

2.1.3 CAPACITY............................................................................................................. 19

2.1.4 PROJECT SCHEDULE................................................................................................. 20

2.2 MAJOR PROJECT COMPONENTS.............................................................................................. 24

2.2.1 ANCHOR FIELDS...................................................................................................... 24

2.2.2 MACKENZIE GATHERING SYSTEM................................................................................ 30

2.2.3 MACKENZIE VALLEY PIPELINE..................................................................................... 34

2.2.4 MACKENZIE GAS PROJECT FOOTPRINT......................................................................... 37

2.2.5 NORTHWEST ALBERTA FACILITIES.............................................................................. 37

2.2.6 PROJECT PRODUCTS................................................................................................ 38

2.3 PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE................................................................................................... 38

2.3.1 CAMPS.................................................................................................................. 42

2.3.2 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY.......................................................................................... 42

2.3.3 BARGE LANDING SITES.............................................................................................. 42

2.3.4 STOCKPILE AND FUEL STORAGE SITES......................................................................... 42

2.3.5 ROADS................................................................................................................... 42

2.3.6 AIRSTRIPS AND HELIPADS......................................................................................... 42

2.3.7 BORROW SITES....................................................................................................... 42

2.4 LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORTATION.......................................................................................... 43

2.4.1 ESTIMATED CARGO WEIGHT...................................................................................... 43

2.4.2 CARGO TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 43

2.4.3 WORKFORCE TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS............................................................ 43

2.5 EXPENDITURES AND WORKFORCE............................................................................................ 45

2.5.1 EXPENDITURES....................................................................................................... 45

2.5.2 WORKFORCE........................................................................................................... 46

2.6 ENVIRONMENTAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS................................................................................... 47

2.6.1 INPUTS.................................................................................................................. 47

2.6.2 OUTPUTS............................................................................................................... 47

2.7 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE............................................................................................ 48

2.8 DECOMMISSIONING, RECLAMATION AND ABANDONMENT.............................................................. 49

2.8.1 INFRASTRUCTURE DECOMMISSIONING.......................................................................... 49

2.8.2 FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT DECOMMISSIONING........................................................... 49

2.8.3 NORTHWEST ALBERTA FACILITIES.............................................................................. 50

 

CHAPTER 3 — Potential Future Developments

3.1 THE PROJECT AS FILED WITH THE PANEL................................................................................. 53

3.2 EXPANSION CAPACITY SCENARIO OF THE MACKENZIE VALLEY PIPELINE......................................... 53

3.3 PROPONENTS’ HYPOTHETICAL EXPANSION CAPACITY SCENARIO................................................... 54

3.3.1 GLJ REPORT............................................................................................................ 54

3.3.2 OIL AND GAS MANAGEMENT DIRECTORATE................................................................... 54

3.3.3 PROPONENTS’ SCENARIO........................................................................................... 56

3.4 OTHER FUTURE SCENARIOS................................................................................................... 63

3.4.1 CANADIAN ARCTIC RESOURCES COMMITTEE’S SUBMISSION............................................. 63

3.4.2 OTHER VIEWS......................................................................................................... 68

3.4.3 “BASIN-OPENING” PROJECT....................................................................................... 68

3.5 SUMMARY.......................................................................................................................... 68

 

CHAPTER 4 — Review Process

4.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 73

4.1.1 JOINT REVIEW PANEL AGREEMENT.............................................................................. 73

4.1.2 DOWNSTREAM REGULATORS...................................................................................... 74

4.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF THE JOINT REVIEW PANEL......................................................................... 76

4.2.1 APPOINTMENT OF THE PANEL.................................................................................... 76

4.2.2 APPOINTMENT UNDER SECTION 15 OF THE NATIONAL ENERGY BOARD ACT.......................... 76

4.2.3 INDEPENDENCE OF THE JOINT REVIEW PANEL............................................................... 76

4.3 MANDATE OF THE JOINT REVIEW PANEL.................................................................................. 76

4.3.1 GENERAL............................................................................................................... 76

4.3.2 STEPS PRIOR TO PUBLIC HEARING PHASE..................................................................... 77

4.4 PUBLIC HEARINGS................................................................................................................ 78

4.4.1 PUBLIC INPUT AND ACCESSIBILITY............................................................................. 78

4.4.2 HEARINGS SCHEDULE AND GUIDANCE........................................................................... 79

4.4.3 HEARINGS STATISTICS............................................................................................. 80

4.5 RULINGS ON MOTIONS.......................................................................................................... 80

4.6 SITE VISITS....................................................................................................................... 80

4.7 TIMING OF PANEL RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................... 80

4.7.1 GOVERNMENT RESPONSE.......................................................................................... 80

4.7.2 DECISION TO CONSTRUCT........................................................................................ 80

4.7.3 LEAVE TO OPEN...................................................................................................... 80

4.7.4 COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION.......................................................................... 80

 

CHAPTER 5 — Approach and Methods

5.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 83

5.2 SCOPING THE PROJECT......................................................................................................... 84

5.2.1 PROJECT NEED AND PURPOSE.................................................................................... 84

5.2.2 ALTERNATIVES....................................................................................................... 86

5.3 THE RECEIVING ENVIRONMENT............................................................................................... 88

5.3.1 IDENTIFICATION OF VALUED COMPONENTS.................................................................. 88

5.3.2 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL BOUNDARIES........................................................................ 88

5.3.3 BASELINE INFORMATION........................................................................................... 89

5.3.4 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE........................................................................................ 90

5.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT.......................................................................................................... 92

5.4.1 IMPACT PREDICTION................................................................................................ 92

5.4.2 PROPONENTS’ COMMITMENTS, MITIGATION AND ENHANCEMENT....................................... 92

5.4.3 UNCERTAINTY AND THE PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH...................................................... 93

5.4.4 MONITORING AND ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT.................................................................. 95

5.4.5 CUMULATIVE IMPACT ASSESSMENT............................................................................ 97

5.4.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT IMPACTS.......................................................................... 99

5.4.7 THE PANEL’S SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK.............................................. 103

 

CHAPTER 6 — Project Design, Construction and Operations

6.1 THE PROJECT AND THE ENVIRONMENT.....................................................................................109

6.1.1 THE DISTINCTIVE NATURE OF THE PROJECT................................................................ 110

6.1.2 PREVIOUS ARCTIC OIL AND GAS PROJECTS.................................................................. 110

6.1.3 TERRAIN AND PERMAFROST CONDITIONS IN THE PROJECT REVIEW AREA........................... 111

6.1.4 PANEL VIEWS......................................................................................................... 113

6.2 PROPONENTS’ APPROACH TO PROJECT DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATIONS...........................114

6.2.1 PROPONENTS’ INFORMATION BASE............................................................................. 114

6.2.2 PROPONENTS’ DESIGN APPROACH............................................................................... 116

6.2.3 DESIGNING FOR GEOHAZARDS................................................................................... 118

6.2.4 ROUTING, SITING AND PROJECT FOOTPRINT................................................................ 119

6.2.5 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 120

6.3 GENERAL DESIGN FOR THERMAL IMPACTS............................................................................... 122

6.3.1 RIGHT-OF-WAY AND SITE PREPARATION AND RECLAMATION METHODS............................ 123

6.3.2 PIPELINE OPERATING TEMPERATURE REGIME............................................................... 126

6.3.3 CLIMATE CHANGE................................................................................................... 128

6.3.4 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 130

6.4 THAW SETTLEMENT............................................................................................................ 131

6.4.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS.............................................................................................. 131

6.4.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 134

6.4.3 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 137

6.5 SLOPE STABILITY IN PERMAFROST........................................................................................ 138

6.5.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS.............................................................................................. 138

6.5.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................... 141

6.5.3 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 141

6.6 FROST HEAVE, FROST BULBS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW ........................................................... 142

6.6.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS.............................................................................................. 143

6.6.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................... 145

6.6.3 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 145

6.7 WATERCOURSE CROSSINGS.................................................................................................. 146

6.7.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS............................................................................................ 146

6.7.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS.............................................................................................. 146

6.7.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 149

6.7.4 PANEL VIEWS........................................................................................................ 150

6.8 OTHER GEOHAZARDS.......................................................................................................... 151

6.8.1 SEISMICITY.......................................................................................................... 151

6.8.2 ACID-ROCK DRAINAGE............................................................................................. 151

6.8.3 KARST TOPOGRAPHY.............................................................................................. 152

6.8.4 PANEL VIEWS....................................................................................................... 152

6.9 ANCHOR FIELDS................................................................................................................ 152

6.9.1 PERMAFROST AT DEPTH......................................................................................... 152

6.9.2 SHALLOW GAS...................................................................................................... 154

6.9.3 SEA-LEVEL CHANGE, STORM SURGES AND SUBMERGENCE.............................................. 155

6.9.4 EXTRACTION-INDUCED SUBSIDENCE.......................................................................... 156

6.10 OVERALL PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 163

 

CHAPTER 7 — Accidents, Malfunctions and Emergency Response

7.1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................171

7.2 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................................172

7.2.1 NATIONAL ENERGY BOARD....................................................................................... 172

7.2.2 GOVERNMENT OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES........................................................ 172

7.2.3 ENVIRONMENT CANADA.......................................................................................... 173

7.2.4 INDIAN AND NORTHERN AFFAIRS CANADA.................................................................. 173

7.2.5 TRANSPORT CANADA............................................................................................. 173

7.2.6 LAND AND WATER BOARDS...................................................................................... 173

7.2.7 THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES/NUNAVUT SPILLS WORKING AGREEMENT........................... 173

7.2.8 AQUATIC SPILLS................................................................................................... 174

7.2.9 TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS................................................................. 176

7.3 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS...........................................................................................................176

7.3.1 KEY PLANNING DOCUMENTS..................................................................................... 176

7.3.2 ACCIDENT AND MALFUNCTION SCENARIOS................................................................. 178

7.3.3 PROPONENTS’ MITIGATION MEASURES AND COMMITMENTS........................................... 181

7.4 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 184

7.4.1 ANCHOR FIELDS AND PIPELINES............................................................................... 184

7.4.2 TRANSPORTATION................................................................................................. 185

7.4.3 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT..................................................................... 188

7.4.4 GENERAL CONCERNS.............................................................................................. 188

7.5 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................. 190

7.5.1 SPILL REPORTING.................................................................................................. 191

7.5.2 SPILL CONTINGENCY PLANNING............................................................................... 191

7.5.3 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS..................................................... 192

7.5.4 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND DANGEROUS GOODS MANAGEMENT PLANNING..................... 192

7.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY PLANS........................................................................ 192

7.5.6 RESPONSE AND DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKES............................................................... 193

7.5.7 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE PLAN....................................................... 193

7.5.8 LOCAL SPILL RESPONSE CAPACITY........................................................................... 194

7.5.9 GOVERNMENT PREPAREDNESS................................................................................. 194

 

CHAPTER 8 — Air and Water Quality

8.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 197

8.2 AIR QUALITY.................................................................................................................... 197

8.2.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS.......................................................................................... 197

8.2.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 198

8.2.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................... 201

8.2.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 202

8.3 WASTE INCINERATION........................................................................................................ 204

8.3.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 204

8.3.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 205

8.3.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION....................................................................... 205

8.4 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS.............................................................................................. 207

8.4.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 207

8.4.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 209

8.4.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 214

8.5 WATER QUALITY AND DRINKING W ATER................................................................................ 219

8.5.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 219

8.5.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 221

8.5.3 PANEL VIEWS....................................................................................................... 222

 

CHAPTER 9 — Fish and Marine Mammals

9.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 225

9.2 PROPONENTS’ APPROACH TO IMPACT ASSESSMENT................................................................. 226

9.2.1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 226

9.2.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS........................................................................................... 226

9.2.3 PANEL VIEWS....................................................................................................... 228

9.3 WATERCOURSE CROSSINGS................................................................................................. 228

9.3.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS.......................................................................................... 228

9.3.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 229

9.3.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 231

9.3.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 234

9.4 FROST BULBS AND AUFEIS.................................................................................................. 235

9.4.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 235

9.4.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 236

9.4.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION...................................................................... 237

9.5 HABITAT COMPENSATION................................................................................................... 238

9.5.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 238

9.5.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................ 238

9.5.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................... 239

9.6 BARGE TRAFFIC AND LANDING SITE CONSTRUCTION................................................................ 240

9.6.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 240

9.6.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................ 242

9.6.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION...................................................................... 244

9.7 MARINE AND RIVER DREDGING, AND DISPOSAL AT SEA............................................................. 245

9.7.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 245

9.7.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 248

9.7.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 250

9.8 MARINE MAMMALS............................................................................................................. 250

9.8.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................... 250

9.8.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 251

9.8.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 253

9.8.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 256

9.9 BALLAST WATER DISPOSAL................................................................................................. 258

9.9.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................. 258

9.9.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 258

9.9.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................... 259

9.10 WATER WITHDRAWAL AND DISCHARGE................................................................................. 260

9.10.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 260

9.10.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................ 262

9.10.3 PANEL VIEWS...................................................................................................... 262

9.11 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT................................................................................................... 262

9.11.1 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS............................................................................................ 262

9.11.2 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................ 262

9.11.3 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION..................................................................... 264

 

CHAPTER 10 — Wildlife

10.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 269

10.2 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY................................................................................. 270

10.2.1 PROPONENTS’ ASSESSMENT METHODS.................................................................... 270

10.2.2 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION..................................................................... 272

10.3 SPECIES AT RISK..............................................................................................................274

10.3.1 ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS................................................................................ 274

10.3.2 SELECTION OF SPECIES FOR ASSESSMENT.............................................................. 276

10.3.3 ASSESSMENT METHODS....................................................................................... 277

10.3.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT.......................................................................................... 278

10.3.5 CUMULATIVE IMPACT ASSESSMENT........................................................................ 278

10.3.6 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 279

10.3.7 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 279

10.4 WOO DLAND (BOREAL) CARIBOU......................................................................................... 282

10.4.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS......................................................................................... 282

10.4.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................... 286

10.4.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 287

10.4.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATION..................................................................... 292

10.5 BARREN GROUND CARIBOU................................................................................................. 295

10.5.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS......................................................................................... 295

10.5.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................... 296

10.5.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 297

10.5.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 299

10.6 GRIZZLY BEAR.................................................................................................................301

10.6.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................ 301

10.6.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................... 302

10.6.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 303

10.6.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................. 304

10.7 POLAR BEAR................................................................................................................... 304

10.7.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................ 304

10.7.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................... 305

10.7.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 305

10.7.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 306

10.8 MOOSE......................................................................................................................... 306

10.8.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................ 306

10.8.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS.......................................................................................... 307

10.8.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................... 308

10.8.4 PANEL VIEWS.................................................................................................... 308

10.9 OTHER WILDLIFE............................................................................................................ 308

10.9.1 WOLVERINE....................................................................................................... 308

10.9.2 OTHER SPECIES AT RISK...................................................................................... 310

10.10 BIRDS: MACKENZIE VALLEY............................................................................................. 313

10.10.1 PEREGRINE FALCON........................................................................................... 313

10.10.2 PROTECTED AREAS FOR BIRDS IN THE MACKENZIE VALLEY....................................... 316

10.11 BIRDS: MACKENZIE DELTA...............................................................................................317

10.11.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS...................................................................................... 317

10.11.2 PROPONENTS’ VIEWS........................................................................................ 318

10.11.3 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................... 318

10.11.4 PANEL VIEWS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................ 323