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Findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Doctrine of Discovery

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

The Penner Report Indian Self-government in Canada

The Beaver Report: The National Indian Socio-economic Development Committee

The Hawthorne Report: Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: Economic, Political, Educational Needs and Policies

The White Paper: Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy



Last Updated October 14, 2017



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Canada was colonized at the expense of its Indigenous Peoples. The British started the forced assimilation and cultural genocide but the federated Dominion of Canada continued the policy in 1867 with its first Prime Minister, Sir John A. MacDonald.

Canada used four primary tools to destroy Aboriginal culture and infrastructure. They were: Wardship, the Indian Act, forced relocation and forced residential schooling. Central in the Government of Canada’s plan was the utilization of the Christian church. The Government of Canada oversaw Christian mission work and mandated most residential school administration to Christian churches. The result was two Canada’s; one for those of privilege, European colonists; one for those without a future, “Indians.”

Most church organizations have apologized for their roles in Indian Residential Schooling. Federal, provincial and territorial governments apologized to Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples. Unfortunately, very little has changed in legislation to include First Nation, Inuit and Métis rights into Canada and resolve iniquities embedded in the country.

As part of the assimilation process, modern community infrastructure and economies were only extended to Indigenous communities when it served corporate interests or furthered colonization. The more north or isolated a community was, the less infrastructure it received. Current gaps in Indigenous health care, education, housing, nutrition, policing, safe drinking water, economies, justice and more are reflections of infrastructure levels currently available to Indigenous communities. Health problems, suicide rates, poverty, lack of housing and etc. are all consequences of the lack of infrastructures.  

CAID is about a practical approach to rebuilding what was destroyed; Aboriginal societal infrastructure and a shared destiny in Canada. Through a culturally respectful consultation process, Indigenous and mainstream rights can be harmonized to create an underlay for detailed consultation, infrastructure rebuilding, the reconciliation of rights, culturally respectful healing, resource and land management, and programs for service delivery.


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