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Last Updated September 15, 2015

Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People (1996)

Volume 4: Perspectives and Realities



1. Introduction


2. Women’s Perspectives

1. Introduction
1.1 Historical Position and Role of Aboriginal Women: A Brief Overview
1.2 Reversing a Pattern of Exclusion
Women’s Priorities for Change
2. Aboriginal Women and Indian Policy: Evolution and Impacts
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Policy Development and its Impact on Aboriginal Women
2.3 Bill C-31
2.4 The
Indian Act and Bill C-31: Areas of Concern to First Nations Women
3. Health and Social Services: A Priority on Healing
4. The Need for Places of Refuge
5. The Rise of Aboriginal Women’s Organizations
6. The Need for Fairness and Accountability
7. The Family

7.1 Birth and Midwifery
7.2 Child Support and Child Care
7.3 Concern for Youth
7.4 Concern for the Elderly
7.5 Making a Living
8. Conclusion


3. Elders’ Perspectives

1. Introduction
2. Who are the Elders?
3. The Elders’ Perspectives
3.1 The North American Intellectual Tradition
3.2 Cultural Wisdom and the Oral Tradition
3.3 When Cultures Collide
4. Traditional Culture in the Modern World: The Elders’ Role
4.1 The Context
4.2 Freedom to Live a Traditional Spiritual Life
5. Elders and…
5.1 Culture, Language and Values
5.2 Education
5.3 Justice
5.4 Governance 5.5 Traditional Health and Healing
5.6 Social Issues
5.7 Lands and Resources
6. Conclusion: A Call for Action


4. The Search for Belonging: Perspectives of Youth

1. Introduction: The Vision of Aboriginal Youth
2. The Reality for Aboriginal Youth: An Overview of Current Conditions
2.1 An Aboriginal Youth Profile
2.2 The Importance of Listening to Aboriginal Youth
3. Toward Whole Health
3.1 The Need for Whole Health
3.2 Spiritual Health
3.3 A Healthy Mind
3.4 A Healthy Body
3.5 Emotional Health
4. Making a Difference: Empowering Aboriginal Youth
4.1 Empowerment
4.2 Recognition and Involvement
4.3 Economic Empowerment
5. Consolidation: A Framework for a Canada-Wide Aboriginal Youth Policy
5.1 The Need for a Canada-wide Policy
5.2 The Policy Framework
6. Conclusion


5. Métis Perspectives

1. The Other Aboriginal Peoples
1.1 Genesis
1.2 A Nation-to-Nation Approach
1.3 Métis Identity
1.4 Multiple Métis Cultures and Communities
1.5 All Métis Protected by Section 35
1.6 All Métis Covered by Section 91(24)
1.7 A Statistical Profile
1.8 Métis Rights
1.9 Discrimination and Neglect
2. The Métis Nation
2.1 The Past
2.2 The Present and the Future
3. The Other Métis
3.1 The Past
3.2 T he Present and the Future
Appendix 5A General Sources of Metis Rights

Appendix 5B Special Sources of Metis Nation Rights

Appendix 5C Metis Nation Land and Resource Rights

Appendix 5D Proposed Metis Nation Accord

Appendix 5E Exerpts from the Draft Legal Text of the Charlottown Accord 9 October1992

Appendix 5F Correspondence Concernng the Metis of Labrador


6. The North

1. Introduction
1.1 Background: Living in the North
1.2 The Commission’s Approach to the North
2. What Northerners Told the Commission
2.1 The Four Themes
2.2 How the Themes are Related
3. The Source of the Current Problems
3.1 Early Northern Administration
3.2 Wartime and After: A Problem of Development?
3.3 The Changing Balance of Power in the 1970s
4. Regional Dimensions of Political Development
4.1 Yukon First Nations
4.2 Dene
4.3 Métis of the Northwest Territories
4.4 Inuit
5. Environmental Stewardship
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Pollution Control
5.3 Environmental Management Regimes
5.4 Traditional Knowledge
5.5 The International Agenda on the Environment
5.6 Conclusions
6. Support for the Northern Economy
6.1 Past Approaches to Northern Economic Development
6.2 The Contemporary Northern Economy
6.3 The Value of Country Food
6.4 Supporting the Traditional-Mixed Economy
6.5 Conclusions
7. Investing in People
7.1 The Need to Heal
7.2 The Opportunities Presented by Political Development
7.3 Conclusions


7. Urban Perspectives

1. Introduction 2. Cultural Identity
2.1 The Essence of Cultural Identity
2.2 Racism
2.3 Urbanization
2.4 Enhancing Cultural Identities in Urban Areas
2.5 Conclusion
3. Financing Social Programs for People Not Living on Aboriginal Territory
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Jurisdictional Roles
3.3 Fiscal Off-Loading
3.4 Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements
3.5 The Commission’s Proposals
3.6 Rationale for Provincial Role: The Right to Equality of Treatment
3.7 Conclusion
4. Service Delivery
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Current Situation
4.3 Cultural Appropriateness
4.4 Reform
4.5 Special Perspectives
4.6 Friendship Centres
4.7 Urban Aboriginal Cultural Education Program
5. Aboriginal Women in Urban Areas
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Who Are Urban Aboriginal Women?
5.3 Migration
5.4 The Urban Experience
5.5 Housing
5.6 Services
5.7 Conclusions
6. Governance for Aboriginal People in Urban Areas
6.1 Reform of Canadian Urban Governments and Public Authorities
6.2 Urban Communities of Interest
6.3 Nation-Based Approaches to Urban Self-Government
6.4 Conclusions
7. Urban Demographics and Socio-Economic Conditions
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
7.3 Population Size and Dynamics
7.4 Composition of Urban Aboriginal Populations
7.5 Demographic, Social and Economic Conditions
7.6 Conclusion


Appendix A Summary of Recommendations Volume 4


Appendix B Abridged Tables of Contents Volumes 1, 2, 3, and 5