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Northern Contaminants Program

Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II

(2003)


Volume 5: Sources, Occurrences, Trends and Pathways in the Physical Environment

Full Document


Executive Summary    

Résumé    


PART I     


1 Introduction     

1.1 Findings of the abiotic studies during NCP-Phase I (1991–1996)

1.2 Abiotic studies during NCP-Phase II (1997–2002)

1.2.1 Organization of the abiotic assessment

1.2.1.1 Section A: Properties and sources

1.2.1.2 Section B: Occurrence and trends

1.2.1.3 Section C: Process studies and modelling

1.2.1.4 Section D: The interaction of climate change and contaminants


2 Summary     

2.1 Properties and sources

2.1.1 Physicochemical properties of contaminants (Harner et al., Section A.1)

2.1.2 Usage and emissions of organochlorine pesticides (Li et al., Section A.2)

2.1.3 Organochlorines in Russian rivers and loadings to the Russian northern seas (Strachan et al., Section A.3)

2.1.4 Local sources of contaminants in the Canadian Arctic (Gregor et al., Section B.9)

2.2 Occurrence and trends

2.2.1 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

2.2.1.1 Polychlorinated biphenyls in air (Blanchard et al., Section B.1)

2.2.1.2 Polychlorinated biphenyls in seawater (Muir et al., Section B.2)

2.2.2 Organochlorine pesticides

2.2.2.1 Organochlorine pesticides in air (Blanchard et al., Section B.1)

2.2.2.2 Organochlorine pesticides in seawater (Muir et al., Section B.2)

2.2.2.3 Hexachlorocyclohexanes in seawater (Li et al., Section C.3)

2.2.2.4 Summary — Organochlorine pesticides in air and seawater

2.2.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

2.2.3.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air (Blanchard et al., Section B.1)

2.2.4 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs)

2.2.4.1 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in air (Blanchard et al., Section B.1)

2.2.5 Persistent organic pollutants in marine sediments (Stern et al., Section B.3)

2.2.6 Persistent organic pollutants in freshwater sediments (Stern et al., Section B.3)

2.2.7 New persistent chemicals in the Arctic (Alaee et al., Section B.4)

2.2.7.1 Brominated fire retardants

2.2.7.2 Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs)

2.2.7.3 Modern agrochemicals

2.2.7.4 Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)

2.2.7.5 Coplanar PCBs (CoPCBs)

2.2.7.6 Octachlorostyrene (OCS)

2.2.8 Mercury

2.2.8.1 Mercury in air (Steffen et al., Section B.5)

2.2.8.2 Mercury in sediments (Lockhart et al., Section B.6)

2.2.9 Other metals in air (Gong et al., Section B.7)

2.2.10 Radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean (Smith, Section B.8)

2.3 Process studies and modelling

2.3.1 Air-snow exchange of POPs (Wania and Halsall, Section C.1)

2.3.2 Modelling mercury in freshwater lakes (Diamond et al., Section C.2)

2.3.3 Modelling persistent organic pollutants in freshwater lakes (Diamond et al., Section C.2)

2.3.4 Modelling and mass balance of HCHs in the Arctic Ocean (Li et al., C.3)

2.3.5 Modelling in support of international negotiations (Wania, Section C.4)

2.4 The interaction of climate change and contaminants (Macdonald et al., Section D.1)


3 Conclusions and Recommendations     

3.1 Properties and sources

3.1.1 Physicochemical properties of persistent organic pollutants

3.1.2 Usage and emissions of organochlorine pesticides

3.1.3 Organochlorines in Russian rivers and loadings to Russian northern seas

3.2 Occurrence and trends

3.2.1 Persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic atmosphere

3.2.2 Persistent organic pollutants in seawater

3.2.3 Persistent organic pollutants in marine and lake sediments

3.2.4 New persistent chemicals in the Arctic environment

3.2.5 Mercury in the Arctic atmosphere

3.2.6 Mercury in abiotic samples

3.2.7 Other heavy metals in Arctic air

3.2.8 Radionuclides — Local and long-range sources

3.2.9 Local sources of contamination in the Canadian Arctic

3.3 Process studies and modelling

3.3.1 Air/snow exchange of persistent organic pollutants

3.3.2 Mass balance and modelling of contaminants in lakes

3.3.3 Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the North American Arctic Ocean

3.3.4 Modelling in support of international negotiations

3.4 Special topic

3.4.1 The interaction of climate change on contaminant pathways to and within the Canadian Arctic


PART II     


A Properties and Sources     

A.1 Physicochemical properties of persistent organic pollutants

A.1.1 Introduction

A.1.2 Incentives to measure physicochemical properties

A.1.3 New physicochemical property data

A.1.4 Advances in describing chemical partitioning

A.1.4.1 Octanol-air partition coefficient

A.1.4.2 Partitioning to aerosols

A.1.4.3 Partitioning to soil

A.1.4.4 Air-water exchange

A.1.4.5 Partitioning to snow and ice

A.1.5 Reaction rates

A.2 Usage and emissions of organochlorine pesticides

A.2.1 Introduction

A.2.2 Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)

A.2.2.1 Global technical HCH usage

A.2.2.2 Technical HCH usage in China

A.2.2.3 Global lindane usage

A.2.2.4 Lindane usage in Europe

A.2.2.5 Lindane usage in China

A.2.2.6 Lindane usage in Canada

A.2.2.7 Lindane usage in the USA

A.2.2.8 Alpha-HCH emissions and their impact on the Arctic atmosphere

A.2.2.9 Beta-HCH emissions and their impact on the Arctic atmosphere

A.2.2.10 Gamma-HCH emissions and their impact on the Arctic atmosphere

A.2.3 Toxaphene

A.2.3.1 Global toxaphene usage

A.2.3.2 Toxaphene usage in Asian countries — The former Soviet Union and China

A.2.3.3 Toxaphene usage in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia

A.2.3.4 Toxaphene usage in Canada

A.2.3.5 Toxaphene production and usage in the United States

A.2.3.6 Toxaphene emissions and residues in the United States

A.2.3.7 Toxaphene in Arctic air

A.2.3.8 Sources of toxaphene to the Arctic

A.2.4 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

A.2.4.1 Global DDT use

A.2.4.2 DDT use in China, India, and Japan

A.2.5 Summarized usage and emission estimates

A.3 Organochlorines in Russian rivers and loadings to Russian northern seas

A.3.1 Introduction

A.3.2 Verification of older Russian river water data

A.3.2.1 Sampling program

A.3.2.2 DDT, -HCH, and -HCH levels and spatial/temporal trends

A.3.2.3 Other chlorinated pesticides in northern Russian rivers

A.3.2.4 Loadings of OC pesticides into the Russian northern seas

A.3.3 Recent studies of organochlorines in Russian freshwater


B Occurrence and Trends   

B.1 POPs in the atmosphere

B.1.1 Introduction

B.1.2 Data and time series analysis

B.1.2.1 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

B.1.2.2 Organochlorine pesticides

B.1.2.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

B.1.2.4 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)

B.1.2.5 Evidence of trans-Pacific transport

B.2 Persistent organic pollutants in seawater

B.2.1 Introduction

B.2.2 Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)

B.2.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

B.2.4 Toxaphene

B.2.5 Other “legacy” organochlorine pesticides

B.2.6 Chlorinated benzenes

B.3 Persistent organic pollutants in marine and lake sediments

B.3.1 Introduction

B.3.2 Marine sediments

B.3.3 Lake sediments

B.3.3.1 Yukon

B.3.3.2 Nunavut

B.3.3.3 Northwest Territories (Great Slave Lake)

B.4 New persistent chemicals in Arctic air and water

B.4.1 Introduction

B.4.2 Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar PCBs

B.4.2.1 Usage and sources

B.4.2.2 Physicochemical and toxicological properties

B.4.2.3 Occurrence in the environment

B.4.2.4 PCNs and coplanar PCBs in Arctic air

B.4.3 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants

B.4.3.1 Usage and sources

B.4.3.2 Physicochemical and toxicological properties

B.4.3.3 Occurrence in the environment

B.4.3.4 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Arctic air

B.4.3.5 Other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in Arctic air

B.4.4 Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs)

B.4.5 Modern pesticides, other biocides, and by-products

B.4.5.1 Occurrence in Arctic air

B.4.5.2 Occurrence in Arctic water

B.5 Mercury in the Arctic atmosphere

B.5.1 Introduction.

B.5.2 NCP-Phase I and II programs

B.5.3 Continuous gaseous mercury concentration measurements

B.5.4 Discovery of mercury depletion events (MDEs) in the Arctic

B.5.4.1 Gaseous elemental mercury and ozone during mercury depletion events

B.5.4.2 Particulate-phase mercury during mercury depletion events

B.5.4.3 Conversion of mercury during mercury depletion events

B.5.4.4 The effect of mercury depletion events on mercury in snow

B.5.4.5 The chemistry of mercury depletion events — halogens and mercury

B.5.4.6 The role of the ocean in mercury depletion event chemistry

B.5.4.7 Profiles and fluxes of mercury in air near the snow surface during mercury depletion events

B.5.4.8 Reactive gaseous mercury during mercury depletion events

B.5.5 The cycle of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic

B.5.6 Summary

B.6 Mercury in sediments

B.6.1 Introduction

B.6.2 Geographic distribution of mercury in sediments from northern Canada

B.6.3 Changes in inputs of mercury over time

B.6.4 Natural and anthropogenic sources

B.7 Other heavy metals in the Arctic atmosphere

B.7.1 Introduction

B.7.2 Experimental methods

B.7.3 Seasonal variations

B.7.4 Long-term trends

B.7.5 Principal component analysis

B.8 Radionuclides: local and long-range sources

B.8.1 Introduction

B.8.2 Long-range transport

B.8.3 Local sources

B.9 Local sources of contaminants in the Canadian Arctic

B.9.1 Introduction

B.9.1.1 Local sources of contaminants in CACAR-I

B.9.1.2 Local source of contaminants in CACAR-II

B.9.2 Contaminated sites overview

B.9.3 Resolution Island, Nunavut

B.9.3.1 History and introduction

B.9.3.2 Site investigations

B.9.3.3 Site remediation

B.9.4 Saglek, Newfoundland and Labrador

B.9.4.1 History and introduction

B.9.4.2 Site investigations

B.9.4.3 Site remediation

B.9.5 Giant Gold Mine, Northwest Territories

B.9.5.1 Introduction

B.9.5.2 Environmental assessment of arsenic contamination in the Yellowknife area

B.9.5.3 Subsurface stored arsenic trioxide

B.9.6 Port Radium Mine, Northwest Territories

B.9.6.1 Radioactivity sources in the Arctic

B.9.6.2 History of the site

B.9.6.3 Site assessment

B.9.6.4 Risk assessment

B.9.7 Carcross railway tie treatment plant, Yukon Territory

B.9.7.1 Background

B.9.7.2 Contaminants of concern

B.9.7.3 Investigation of off-site contamination

B.9.8 Summary


C Process Studies and Modelling     

C.1 Air/Snow exchange of persistent organic pollutants

C.1.1 Introduction

C.1.2 Field measurements of contaminants in snow and ice

C.1.3 Mechanistic understanding of snow-related processes of organic contaminants

C.1.4 Snow scavenging of persistent organic pollutants

C.1.5 Fate of persistent organic pollutants in snowpack

C.2 Mass balance and modelling of contaminants in lakes

C.2.1 Introduction

C.2.2 Amituk Lake

C.2.2.1 Mercury budget for Amituk Lake

C.2.2.2 Persistent organic pollutants in Amituk Lake

C.2.2.3 Organochlorine degradation and relative age

C.3 Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the North American Arctic Ocean

C.3.1 Introduction

C.3.2 Usage and emissions of hexachlorocyclohexanes

C.3.3 Physical and chemical properties of the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers

C.3.4 Current understanding of -HCH transport to the Arctic

C.3.5 The enigma of -HCH

C.3.6 Comparative loadings of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers to the North American Arctic Ocean

C.3.7 Hexachlorocyclohexane removal processes in the Arctic Ocean

C.3.8 Conclusions

C.4 Modelling in support of international negotiations

C.4.1 Introduction

C.4.2 Model simulations of the global transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants

C.4.2.1 Simulation of the global fate of -HCH

C.4.2.2 Simulation of the global fate of PCBs

C.4.2.3 Identification of the potential for accumulation in the Arctic

C.4.2.4 Spatially highly resolved models of global fate and transport

C.4.3 Models in support of defining the persistent organic pollutants attributes of persistence and long-range transport potential

C.4.3.1 Models to estimate persistence

C.4.3.2 Models to estimate potential for long-range transport

C.4.3.3 Approaches to reduce input data requirements for the model based evaluation

C.4.3.4 Other aspects of long-range transport potential and persistence assessment


D Special Topic     

D.1 The interaction of climate change with contaminant pathways to and within

the Canadian Arctic

D.1.1 Introduction

D.1.1.1 Contaminant transport in a changing world

D.1.1.2 Objectives of this chapter

D.1.1.3 Organization of this chapter

D.1.2 Long-term change in the Arctic

D.1.2.1 The distant past

D.1.2.2 The present and future

D.1.3 Recent change in the Arctic and the Arctic oscillation

D.1.3.1 The Arctic oscillation

D.1.3.2 Winds

D.1.3.3 Surface air temperature

D.1.3.4 Precipitation and runoff

D.1.3.5 The ocean

D.1.3.6 Adjacent polar seas and regions

D.1.3.7 Lake and river ice

D.1.3.8 Permafrost

D.1.3.9 Glacial ice

D.1.4 Biological responses to climate change

D.1.4.1 Terrestrial systems

D.1.4.2 Aquatic systems

D.1.5 The effects of climate change on human activities

D.1.6 The effects of climate change on contaminant pathways

D.1.6.1 Heavy metals

D.1.6.2 Radionuclides

D.1.6.3 Organochlorines

D.1.6.4 Hydrocarbons

D.1.7 Time series

D.1.7.1 Sediment-core records and surface sediments

D.1.7.2 Atmospheric time series

D.1.7.3 Biological tissue time series


E References    



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Last Updated October 15, 2018