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Northern Contaminants Program

Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II

(2003)


Volume 4: Contaminant Levels, Trends and Effects in the Biological Environment

Full Document


Executive Summary   

Résumé   


Part I   


1 Introduction   

1.1 Background

1.2 Study design


2 Pathways and Processes of Delivery of Contaminants to Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Ecosystems

2.1 Inputs of airborne and seaborne contaminants

2.2 Bioaccumulation processes


3 Contaminants in Biota — Levels and Spatial Trends     

3.1 Spatial trends of contaminants in freshwater biota

3.1.1 Spatial trends of metals in freshwater fish

3.1.1.1 Factors influencing metals in freshwater fish

3.1.1.2 Spatial trends of metals in freshwater fish

3.1.2 Levels and spatial trends of organochlorines in freshwater fish

3.1.3 Levels of new chemicals in freshwater fish

3.1.4 Overall assessment of contaminants in freshwater biota

3.2 Terrestrial biota — levels and spatial trends

3.2.1 Contaminants in caribou and other big game mammals

3.2.2 Levels of organochlorines and metals in mammals associated with freshwater

3.2.3 Spatial trends of contaminants in waterfowl and game birds

3.2.4 Contaminants in plants

3.2.5 Local sources of contaminants in the terrestrial environment

3.2.6 Overall assessment of contaminants in terrestrial biota

3.3 Spatial trends of contaminants in marine biota

3.3.1 Contaminants in invertebrates and marine fish

3.3.1.1 Metals in invertebrates and fish

3.3.1.2 Organochlorines in invertebrates and fish

3.3.2 Spatial trends of contaminants in seabirds

3.3.2.1 Metals in seabirds

3.3.2.2 Organochlorines in seabirds

3.3.2.3 New chemicals in seabirds

3.3.3 Spatial trends of contaminants in marine mammals

3.3.3.1 Levels and spatial trends in metals in marine mammals

3.3.3.2 Organochlorines in marine mammals

3.3.3.3 New compounds in marine mammals

3.3.4 Arctic marine food web studies

3.3.4.1 Trophic transfer of metals in marine food webs

3.3.4.2 Trophic transfer of organochlorines in marine food webs

3.3.4.3 Trophic transfer of new and chiral chemicals in marine food webs

3.3.4.4 Trophic transfer of organochlorine metabolites in marine food webs

3.3.5 Local sources of contaminants in the marine environment

3.3.6 Overall assessment of contaminants in marine biota


4 Temporal Trends of Contaminants in Biota      

4.1 Temporal trends of contaminants in freshwater fish

4.1.1 Metals in freshwater fish

4.1.2 Organochlorines in freshwater fish

4.1.3 Overall assessment of temporal trends of contaminants in freshwater fish

4.2 Temporal trends of contaminants in seabirds

4.2.1 Conclusions on temporal trends of contaminants in seabirds

4.3 Temporal trends of contaminants in marine mammals

4.3.1 Organochlorines in marine mammals

4.3.2 New chemicals in marine mammals

4.3.3 Metals in marine mammals

4.3.4 Modelling temporal trends of organochlorines in pinnipeds and cetaceans

4.3.5 Overall assessment of temporal trends of contaminants in marine biota


5 Biological Effects     

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Effects studies

5.2.1 Eider ducks

5.2.2 Black guillemot nestlings at Saglek, Labrador

5.2.3 Mercury toxicity in beluga

5.2.4 Toxicity in polar bears

5.3 Comparison of thresholds of biological effects and concentrations observed in Canadian Arctic biota

5.3.1 Organochlorine concentrations and threshold levels of effects

5.3.2 Metals concentrations and threshold levels of effects

5.4 Assessment of biological effects work in Canadian Arctic biota


6 Conclusions and Knowledge Gaps, and Recommendations    

6.1 Conclusions

6.1.1 Priority chemicals

6.1.2 Spatial trends

6.1.3 Temporal trends

6.1.4 Biological effects

6.2 Knowledge gaps and recommendations

6.2.1 Priority chemicals

6.2.2 Spatial trends and geographic coverage

6.2.3 Temporal trends

6.2.4 Biological effects


Part II     


7 Interlaboratory Quality Assurance for the Northern Contaminants Program  

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Background

7.3 Interlaboratory comparison studies

7.4 Data assessment techniques

7.5 Results of the intercomparison studies

7.5.1 Toxic heavy metals in sediments

7.5.2 Heavy metals and methylmercury in biotic samples

7.5.3 Organochlorines and PCBs

7.5.4 Toxaphene

7.5.5 Radionuclides

7.5.6 Stable lead isotopes

7.5.7 Organotins

7.5.8 Chemicals of emerging concern

7.6 Overall analytical data quality within the NCP QA program

7.7 Summary and next steps


References   



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Last Updated June 22, 2018