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Northern Contaminants Program

Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II

(2003)


Volume 2: Human Health

Full Document


Executive Summary     

Résumé     


1 Introduction     

1.1 Objectives and reason for concern

1.2 Aboriginal peoples of northern Canada

1.3 Aboriginal perspectives on food and health

1.4 Factors contributing to the exposure of Aboriginal peoples to environmental contaminants in traditional/country food

1.5 Evaluation of research in CACAR and application to benefit and risk assessment/management

1.6 Research ethics


2 Exposure Assessment    

2.1 Dietary information

2.1.1 Dietary survey results in Dene and Métis, Yukon, and Inuit communities

2.2 Contaminant levels in people and their relationship to traditional/country food diets

2.2.1 Levels of persistent organic pollutants in maternal and cord blood

2.2.2 Levels of mercury in hair and blood

2.2.3 Levels of selenium in maternal blood

2.2.4 Levels of lead in maternal blood

2.2.5 Levels of cadmium in maternal blood

2.2.6 Radionuclide exposure

2.3 Trends in traditional/country food dietary intakes and contaminant exposures


3 Toxicology     

3.1 Dose-response studies on priority contaminants for which there are limited data

3.1.1 Toxaphene

3.1.2 Chlordane compounds

3.2 Toxicological effects induced by exposure to food-chain contaminant mixtures

3.2.1 Overview

3.2.2 Developmental toxicity study using the pig as the animal model

3.2.3 Experimental study in rats and a toxicokinetic modelling framework

3.3 Contaminant and dietary nutrient interactions

3.3.1 Dietary nutrients and methylmercury toxicity

3.3.2 Methylmercury and selenium interactions

3.3.3 Other contaminants and dietary nutrient interactions


4 Epidemiology and Biomarkers     

4.1 Immune system function

4.1.1 Clinical outcomes

4.1.2 Biomarkers

4.2 Neurodevelopment

4.2.1 Clinical outcomes

4.2.2 Biomarkers of developmental effects

4.3 Sex hormone disruption

4.3.1 Clinical outcomes

4.3.2 Hormonal biomarkers

4.4 Oxidative stress


5 Risk and Benefit Characterization, Assessment and Advice  

5.1 Contaminant exposure risks

5.1.1 Persistent organic pollutants

5.1.2 Toxic metals — mercury, cadmium and lead

5.1.3 Radionuclides

5.2 Nutritional benefits of traditional/country food

5.3 Social, cultural, spiritual and economic benefits of traditional/country food

5.4 Assessment of perceptions of risks, benefits and safety of traditional/country foods

5.4.1 Introduction 73

5.4.2 Differences in perceptions among individuals

5.4.3 Perceptions of risks in the North

5.4.4 Research on the perceptions of food-chain contamination in the North

5.4.5 Impacts of these perceptions

5.5 Benefit and risk management framework for the Northern Contaminants Program

5.5.1 Risk management frameworks

5.5.2 Problem identification and context

5.5.3 Benefit and risk assessment

5.5.4 Risk characterization

5.5.5 Weighing benefits and risks — challenges in practice

5.5.6 Option analysis/evaluation

5.5.7 Selecting a risk management option

5.5.8 Implementation

5.5.9 Monitoring and evaluating the decision

5.6 Benefit and risk communication


6 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Aspects of NCP Human Health Studies  

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Internal quality control activities

6.3 External data quality assurance

6.3.1 Northern Contaminants Interlaboratory Quality Assurance (QA) Program

6.3.2 Centre de Toxicologie du Québec — Interlaboratory Comparison Program

6.3.3 Hair Mercury Quality Control Program

6.4 Dietary surveys and measurements


7 Conclusions     

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Aboriginal peoples of Canada

7.1.2 Aboriginal perspectives on food and health

7.1.3 Factors contributing to exposure to traditional/country food contamination

7.1.4 Evaluation of research in CACAR and its application to benefit and risk assessment/management

7.1.5 Research ethics

7.2 Exposure assessment

7.2.1 Dietary information

7.2.2 Tissue contaminant levels

7.2.3 Trends in traditional/country food dietary intakes and contaminant exposures

7.3 Toxicology

7.3.1 Toxicological effects from exposure to contaminant mixtures

7.3.2 Contaminant and dietary nutrient interactions

7.4 Epidemiology and biomarkers

7.5 Risk and benefit characterization, assessment and advice

7.5.1 Contaminant exposure risks

7.5.2 Nutritional benefits of a traditional/country food diet

7.5.3 Social, cultural, and spiritual benefits of traditional/country food diet

7.5.4 Assessment of peoples’ perceptions of risks, benefits, and safety of traditional/country foods

7.5.5 Benefit and risk management and assessment framework

7.5.6 Benefit and risk communication

7.6 Quality assurance and quality control


8 Knowledge Gaps     

8.1 Exposure assessment

8.1.1 Persistent organic pollutants

8.1.2 Mercury

8.1.3 Radionuclides

8.2 Toxicology

8.2.1 Toxaphene

8.2.2 Chlordane

8.2.3 Organochlorine mixtures

8.2.4 Contaminant and dietary nutrient interactions

8.3 Epidemiology

8.4 Risk and benefit characterization, assessment and advice


References  



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Last Updated August 30, 2018