Last Updated October 8, 2017

A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: Economic, Political, Educational

Needs and Policies (1966) – Hawthorne Report


Volume 1a

Full Document


I- Introduction and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

II- the Concept and Goals of Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

III- Sources and Method of the Economic Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

IV- the General Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

V- Comparative Economic Development among Various Indian Bands in Canada . . . . . . . . . 65

VI- Socio-economic Factors Affecting Economic Development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

VII- Socio-cultural Factors Influencing Economic Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

VIII- Major Trends and Processes of Economic Development for Indians. . . . . . . . . . . . . .135

IX- General Prospects by Major Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

X- Conclusions on the Major Economic Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163

XI- the Canadian Federal System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199